同志諮詢熱線 -- 1020225【發言稿】兩公約台灣首次國際審查會議:公政公約第3條
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1020225【發言稿】兩公約台灣首次國際審查會議:公政公約第3條   

Reply and Recommendation of Taiwan Tongzhi Hotline Association to the list of issues on ICCPR

社團法人台灣同志諮詢熱線協會對公政公約問題清單之回應與建議

 

Article:

Article 3, ICCPR

 

Core Document No. 5 

Corporate responsibility relating to human rights

While the corporate sector contributes in many instances to the realization of the rights enshrined in the Covenants, there may also be corporate activities that are detrimental to the enjoyment of these rights. Examples may occur in such matters as unsafe labour conditions, restrictions on trade union rights, discrimination against female workers and migrant workers, corruptive practices. Please provide information on measures taken with regard to the role and impact of the corporate sector on the enjoyment and the realization of the rights included in the Covenants.

 

Comment and Recommendation(Chinese)

  1. 傳統上,對公政公約第3條的解釋是:國家應當採取積極措施,以保障男性與婦女的平等權利。隨著時代進步,「性別」的概念已經擴及不同的性別弱勢,如不同性傾向、性別認同、愛滋及其他。因此,政府也應當提供任何一切方法,保障、對抗基於性別、性傾向、性別認同、愛滋及其他性少數的歧視。
  2. 根據台灣同志諮詢熱線協會(以下簡稱熱線)15年的諮詢電話服務經驗,平均每年有近30通的求助電話,是來電個案遭遇職場上的性傾向、性別認同與愛滋歧視。但這15年來,台灣政府卻只有受理過兩件基於性傾向、性別認同的職場歧視申訴案件。這不單只是由於同志因社會污名與出櫃疑慮而不敢向政府申訴,更重要的是政府僅消極地受理申訴案件,並未採取任何積極性措施,以保障同志在職場上的權益。另雖依法(《人類免疫缺乏病毒傳染防治及感染者權益保障條例》、《人類免疫缺乏病毒感染者權益保障辦法》)明訂雇主不得在求職者與受雇者的體檢項目中檢驗愛滋,但政府未有任何進一步作為,導致許多企業仍違法在體檢項目中放入愛滋。
  3. 因此,熱線建議:

(1)       《就業服務法》與《性別工作平等法》的反歧視條款應納入性別認同。(《就業服務法》第5條,與《性別工作平等法》第6條第1項、第7條至第11條。)

(2)       政府應強化、健全現有的職場歧視申訴機制,並考量性少數族群的特殊需求(如擔心身分曝光等),建立符合其需求的友善申訴流程。

(3)       政府應積極採取各種形式的獎勵措施與勞動檢查,鼓勵企業創造對性少數族群友善且平等的工作環境。未達一定標準的企業,應給予有效懲罰。

(4)       政府應規範企業不得針對員工的髮型、服裝做性別刻板印象的規範。雇主也不得以員工的髮型、服裝因不符合性別的刻板印象而加以處罰或納入員工考績。

(5)       政府應採取各種形式的積極措施,如勞動檢查與高額罰鍰,規範企業針對求職者與員工的體檢項目,不得包括愛滋。

 

Comment and Recommendation(English)

  1. The traditional interpretation about Art. 3 (ICCPR) is State party shall take positive measures to ensure equal right of men and women. With time gone by, concept of “gender” has been extended to different gender minorities, such as people with different sexual orientation, gender identity, HIV/AIDS and others. Hence, State shall also protect against discrimination based on sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, HIV/AIDS and other gender minorities by all means.
  2. In the 15 years of providing telephone counseling service to the LGBTI community in Taiwan, Taiwan Tongzhi Hotline Association (hereinafter referred to as Hotline) receives 30 calls in average each year about discrimination against sexual orientation, gender identity and HIV issues in workplaces. But in these 15 years, the Taiwanese government has only received and handled 2 cases of complaints on workplace discrimination against sexual orientation and gender identity. This is not merely a result of the LGBTI members being scared of filing a complaint to the government due to the social stigma around coming out. More importantly, it shows that the government only passively handles such cases, without taking any active measure to protect the LGBTI members’ employment rights. Although there are clear stipulations in the HIV Infection Control and Patient Rights Protection Act and the Regulations Governing Protection of the Rights of HIV Patients, that employers are not allowed to include to HIV testing in employment physical examinations for job applicants and employees, many corporations still illegally include HIV testing in their physical examinations on account of the government’s lack of enforcement of the laws.
  3. Hence, Hotline suggests following recommendations:

(1)   The protection of gender identity should be included in the anti-discrimination sections of the Employment Services Act (Article 5) and the Act of Gender Equality in Employment (Article 6 Item 1, Article 7 to Article 11).

(2)   The government should strengthen the existing complaint and response mechanisms for employment discrimination by taking into consideration the needs of the sexual minorities (i.e. concerns for identity exposure), in order to establish a LGBTI friendly mechanism.

(3)   The government should proactively provide incentives and carry out labor inspections to encourage corporations to create an equal and friendly work environment for sexual minorities. Companies those fail to the requirements should be penalized.

(4)   The government should prohibit corporations from implementing a dress code based on gender stereotypes. Employers should not be allowed to include employees’ hairstyles and appearance when evaluating their merits.

(5)   The government should take proactive measures (i.e. labor inspection and high amount fines) to ban corporations from including HIV testing in physical examinations for job applicants and employees.

 

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